- Alzheimer’s & Other Dementias
- What is Alzheimer’s?
- Other Dementias
- Pioneers in Neurology
- Articles of Interest
Dementia is a general term for memory loss and decline in mental ability that is severe enough to interfere with the activities of daily living. Dementia can result from a variety of causes, which fall into three categories: (1) potentially reversible, (2) non-progressive, and (3) progressive. An estimated 5-15% of all dementias are due to potentially reversible causes, while the remainder (85-85%) are irreversible and may be progressive or non-progressive. An early and accurate evaluation is critical to identify any potentially reversible causes of dementia, such as depression, vitamin B12 deficiency, hypothyroidism, side effects from medications, and infections.
Some dementias are non-progressive, characterized by a change in cognition that remains stable over time. The vast majority of dementias, however, are progressive, causing a steady irreversible decline until death. The most common progressive dementia among the elderly is Alzheimer’s disease, which accounts for approximately 60% of all cases. Nearly 36 million people in the world have Alzheimer’s disease, including 5.4 million in the USA. Nearly 600,000 Californians are affected, including an estimated 75,000 individuals in Orange County.
Dementias other than Alzheimer’s disease, dementia with Lewy bodies, frontotemporal dementia, vascular dementia, Parkinson’s disease dementia, Huntington’s disease dementia, Creutzfeldt-Jacob dementia and a number of other very rare conditions, account for 40% of cases.
Knowing one has dementia is not good enough, as treatments for the various types of dementia vary. Just like cancer medications don’t all work for all the various forms of cancers, medications and treatments for the different types of dementia can vary widely, highlighting the need for an accurate diagnosis. One in 9 individuals over 65 have dementia and currently over 70% of them do not ever receive a clear diagnosis and, consequently, do have the opportunity to benefit from the treatments and services that can improve quality of life.